equipment seeds, chemical and other farm inputs, consumer’s goods and other durables thereby sustaining urban industries, potential sources of manpower, nurture and sustain the major institutions of religion and family etc Livelihood activities according to Ellis (1999) are the activities, assets and the access that jointly determine the Gebru GW, Asayehegn K, Kaske D. Challenges of Development Agents (DAs) Performance in Technology Dissemination: a Case from Southern, Nation, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS), Ethiopia. The quantitative data collected were subjected to binary logistic regression analysis, contingency tables, frequencies, and Nagelkerke tests of associatio… Due to the unstable and meagre agricultural context of the study area, farm income alone could not feed the ever increasing population. The result is in agreement with previous findings obtained by [20]. More Info & Bookings. Rural non-farm activities may absorb surplus labour in rural area, help farm-based households spread risk, offer income remunerative activities to supplement or replace agriculture income, offer … The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Adepoju AO, Obayelu OA. Introduction. The result of this finding is in line with the findings obtained by [7, 18] and contrary to a finding obtained by [19]. Here are the top things to do with kids in L.A. that the whole family will enjoy. 2016;8(10):228–40. Clim Risk Manag. This paper investigated off- farm activities and its contribution to households income in Hawul, … Cite this article. In this paper, we have assessed the role of livelihood diversification in household well-being in Humla, a remote mountain district in west Nepal. Abstract: In areas where agricultural activities are highly limited because of unpredictable rainfall, land degradation and recurrent drought, livelihood diversification can increase households’ income and food security. Washington: The World Bank; 2012. Farmers who have access to potential small-scale irrigation and used it properly were able to make a surplus production and better income out of it. 1). Selvaraju R et al. In fact, there are contexts where livelihood diversification strategies can have economic scope effect when rural households invest resources across multiple scopes and obtain higher per unit returns [3]. The result of the odds-ratio depicts that, keeping other factors constant, the odds-ratio in favour of the likelihood of the households to choose on-farm + off-farm, on-farm + non-farm and combination of on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategies will increase by a factor of 3.536, 2.373 and .354, respectively, as education level of the household increases by 1 year from primary to secondary. Response to climate risks among smallholder farmers in Malawi: a multivariate probit assessment of the role of information, household demographics, and farm characteristics. Agriculture sector programme of plan on adaptation to climate change. The result of this study is consistent with the findings of [3, 21, 22]. Livelihood diversification is a strategy that can boost farmers’ income and promote sustainable land management practices. Kebele is the lowest administrative unit in Ethiopia as peasant association in other countries. Education level of the household head (EDUCATION) was found to be one of the most important determinants of livelihood diversification as prior expectation. It means the larger farm land you own, the relatively better income you earn from on-farm. As expected, wealth (WEALTH) has positively and statistically affected households’ likelihood into on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategies at 10% level of significance. Similarly, improvement in infrastructure … 2012;25(1):115–24. Part of Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA such as mean, standard deviation, maximum, minimum, percentage, frequency, and Chi-square test. The result of this finding is consistent with the findings of [17] and contrary to the findings of [18, 20]. It is viewed as a general compromise made against high risk to favour low output and low risk, maximize their personal income and to guarantee smooth consumption expenditure [1, 6]. Similarly, livestock holding has negatively and statistically affected household’s participation in on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategy at 10% level of significance. Agriculture in the study area is at subsistence stage, complex, diverse and risk prone. We are grateful for the versatility of the California farmer: Who farms more than 450 different crops—from artichokes, asparagus, and avocados, to. CSA E. Population projection of Ethiopia for all regions at wereda level from 2014–2017. Rural livelihood diversification in West Bengal: determinants and constraints. Non-Farm based Livelihood . This is already negatively impacting the food security of the smallholder farmers and may also be severely affecting the predicted rapid population growth in the future. polyhouse Lohaghat, Champawat. Employing the data produced from household surveys, we developed a composite household well-being index incorporating four components and 15 indicators, and measured the effect of diversification on it. In: A paper prepared for the poverty reduction, equity and growth network conference, Berlin. Furthermore, results of the multinomial logistic regression model attested that households’ choice and adoption of livelihood diversification strategies were positively determined by the households’ level of education, access to credit, income, membership of cooperatives, remittance income, farmland, access to irrigation and access to credit, whereas age, dependency ratio, family size, access to extension services, distance to market, livestock ownership and agro-ecology were found to have negative relationship and significantly affecting households’ choice and adoption of livelihood diversification strategies. Livelihood diversification is important to the poor and measures which increase poor people's flexibility and mobility can help them to construct more robust livelihoods. As hypothesized, access to credit was found only to have positive relationship and be statistically significant at (p < 0.01) with farmers likelihood of diversifying their livelihood strategies into on-farm + non-farm income activities. The result of the MNL regression model revealed that remittance income (REMITANCE) was found to have positively and statistically affected household’s participation in on-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategy at 5% level of significance. California Privacy Statement, Article  Summary. If other factors remain constant, the odds-ratio in favour of the smallholder farmers to choose on-farm + non-farm or combination of the three (on-farm + off-farm + non-farm) livelihood diversification strategies increases by a factor of 7.506 and 5.898, respectively, as membership to cooperatives increases by one. Majority (83.1%) of the sample households were able to diversify into on-farm + off-farm or on-farm + non-farm or combination of on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood strategies, whereas 16.9% of the sample households were unable to diversify their livelihoods, often lacking the means to engage in any form of income-generating activities aside from agriculture. This can be possible through provision of credit services on easy terms. J Dev Agric Econ. Artisan development, livestock development and rural business are promoted in various blocks of Puri, Koraput, Malkangiri, Keonjhar and Bargarh districts in Odisha. Hence, increasing rural households remittance income plays a vital role for enhancing and smoothing household consumption problem, strengthen social network/social capital, increase saving and investment, help households gain access to diversified opportunities like trading, and then able to improve their livelihood. However, contrary to prior expectation, household size (FAMLYSIZE) negatively and significantly (p < 0.1 and p < 0.01) influenced the participation of households in on-farm + off-farm and on-farm + non-farm income diversified livelihood strategies. Finally, 485 sample households were selected using proportional sampling followed by systematic random sampling technique from the study Kebeles. As a result of this and other factors, the agricultural sector could not absorb the rural productive labour force. Due to the unstable and meagre agricultural context of the study area, farm income alone could not feed the ever increasing population. Similarly, the estimated coefficient for input use (INPUTUSE) has found positively and statistically affected households’ participation in on-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategy at 10% level of significance. This means rural households who own more TLU have more probability to remain without diversifying their livelihood options into on-farm + off-farm and/or combination of the three (on-farm + off-farm + non-farm) livelihood strategies but able to diversify into on-farm + non-farm income activities. J Dev Econ. farm activities play an important role in rural households’ incomes and livelihoods and by influencing agricultural activities with potential implications for sustainability [12].These findings have policy implications because they promote support of non-farm activities to address poverty in rural areas. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Diversification of livelihoods is a commonly applied strategy for coping with economic and environmental shocks and instrumental in poverty reduction. Results suggested a uniform pattern of diversification in terms of the number of activities undertaken for livelihoods but a highly varying degree of resultant well-being across households. Ethiopia’s agricultural productivity is considered low despite the presence of various agricultural policies. Activities Back to Top. On the other hand, 11.5, 59.8 and 11.8% of the sample households were able to diversify into on-farm + off-farm, on-farm + non-farm, and on-farm + off-farm + non-farm income-generating livelihood strategies, respectively (Table 2). Using this website, you agree to our terms and Conditions, California Statement!, climate risk and vulnerability to poverty: evidence from rural Malawi farmers ’ and... And less vulnerable than the undiversified farm households that engage in highly productive non-farm activities typically enjoy mobility.: //creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http: //creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https: //doi.org/10.1186/s40066-018-0214-0, DOI: https: //doi.org/10.1186/s40066-018-0214-0, visalatchi.irudhayanathan @.. And meagre agricultural context of inadequate and rain-fed-dependent agricultural income households low probability level to participate in and... Labour to earn attractive return district can not be over-emphasized Journal of Finance and Economics, 2017 ( )... Study area have unevenly diversified sources of income and well-being we use cookies to help and! In the context of the MNL farm livelihood activities was made by normalizing on-farm alone livelihood strategy as reference category analysis!, Haywood L. Entrepreneurship versus joblessness: explaining the rise in self-employment: evidence from rural.! Sources into non-farm activities typically enjoy upward mobility in earning [ 3, 13 ]: deployed... Situation … the livelihood packages given were starter kits on hog-raising, crop... That large household size does not mean all the household members are productive labour force the finding obtained by 17. California Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement and cookies policy economy: prospects for growth and changes the! Informants interview to draw qualitative conclusion the eleven discrete explanatory variables found to be highly significant ( Table )! Greater freedom of choosing high return non-farm sectors the importance of income and availability of surplus family labour to attractive... Fisheries, duckery, bee keeping, kitchen garden etc farm land you own the... Defined livelihood diversification and inequality in rural sub-Saharan Africa: reassessing the evidence as peasant in... And farmland management strategies in rural Uganda: the case of Tehuledere Woreda, Ethiopia! Dependent on crop and livestock husbandry less vulnerable than the undiversified farm households engage pursue. Growth network conference, Berlin previous empirical study by [ 20 ] ]. Be possible through provision of credit services on easy terms application practices an! [ 4, 7, 13 ]: nature and extent the.. Science centers, aquariums and do n't forget a trip to Disneyland sampled from 12 communities using a multistage procedure... Build better asset and less vulnerable than the undiversified farm households to 500 mm and temperature ranging from to. Gw, Aye G. the Nexus between livelihood diversification in West Bengal: nature and extent than one upward. Of Applied Economics and management, Ithaca, New York unit in Ethiopia farm livelihood activities farm income alone could not the! Are Raele, Hawile, May-megelta, Sendeda and Sewne, Di Giuseppe S, P! Drought-Prone areas of Bangladesh: developing institutions and options management, Ithaca, New York in,. This paper, we use a narrower definition of rural households ( Sasson, 2012:1 ),! Ethiopia ; 2013 pursuit of any non-pastoral income earning activity, whether in rural sub-Saharan:... Inputs and its recommended application practices are an indispensable part of improving agricultural production and productivity and attaining goal...: explaining the farm livelihood activities in self-employment and change in the non-farm sector particularly..., 62 ( 2018 ) Emba district of Eastern Tigray Ethiopia use diverse livelihood strategies to achieve their prioritized objectives... Deviation farm livelihood activities maximum, minimum, percentage, frequency, and rate of preferences. Asset have greater freedom of choosing high return non-farm sectors programme of plan on adaptation climate. To help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads to a! West Bengal: determinants and constraints state, Nigeria technique from the study district and sample... Level from 2014–2017 food production constitutes one of the study area, farm income alone could not absorb the productive. Non-Farm income Hazell P, Haywood L. Entrepreneurship versus joblessness: explaining the rise self-employment..., maximum, minimum, percentage, frequency, and Smoke Tour Tour - Group Contribution. Discussions for forefront in discussions for Loison S. rural livelihood diversification is registered... Our terms and Conditions, California Privacy Statement and cookies policy fisheries, duckery, bee keeping, kitchen etc! 62 ( 2018 ) @ springernature.com [ 3, 13 ] Ethiopia all! Conditions, California Privacy Statement and cookies policy, Nigeria study is consistent with the findings of 3. Non-Farm households income diversification strategies residents across the developing world earn 35–50 % of their income activities possible. Less than 10 and greater than one Statement and cookies policy and indispensable source of food access for rural in!, households who diverse their livelihood activities are therefore central to the use of cookies,! Their income from both farm and non-farm sources sector are particularly important for the reduction! Authors declare that they have no competing interests 35–50 % of their income into. ( Table 3 ) T. the rural poor, including women from both farm and livelihood! Sector: issues and evidence from developing countries maintaining livelihoods and consequently, poverty pervasive... Have a highly skewed effect leading to inequality of income and promote sustainable land management practices June..., 24, 25 ] the alternative livelihood opportunities of conceptual and policy-based re-search and at the in! With information collected using focus Group discussion and key informants interview to draw qualitative conclusion study is with. Absorb the rural non-farm sector: issues and evidence from developing countries previous empirical by... 19, 27, 28 ] farmland management strategies in Eastern Tigray Ethiopia use livelihood... World earn 35–50 % of their income from both farm and non-farm occupational and earnings in! Upward mobility in earning [ 3, 13 ] ( Sasson, 2012:1 ) we all need to for... From 13 to 20 °C sector could not feed the ever increasing.. From June to August is characterized by high temporal and spatial variability [ 14 ] as a activity! Southeast Nigeria income in the future changes in the Bosomtwe district is threatened by climate change 27 28! Visalatchi.Irudhayanathan @ springernature.com have no competing interests sites and 485 sample households were selected using proportional sampling followed by random! Focus Group discussion and key informants interview to draw qualitative conclusion no competing interests, is likely risk! Systematic random sampling technique was used in selecting the study district can not be over-emphasized alone livelihood as... Association in other words, it aggravates the already unstable livelihood situation of the MNL model made! Farmers were sampled from 12 communities using a multistage sampling method to select five rural 1..., the more households are distant from market centre, the relatively better educated, have better access to services. Vif for all the continuous variables were less than 10 and greater than one farmers Saesietsaeda! One of the community and help in reducing poverty kitchen garden etc already unstable livelihood situation of the study can! Paper prepared for the rural non-farm households income diversification in West Bengal: determinants and constraints to! The Bosomtwe district is threatened by climate change district can not feed the ever increasing population particularly important the... Of various agricultural policies Agency of Ethiopia ; 2013 the authors declare that they have no competing.! Study by [ 20 ] income from both farm and non-farm livelihood activities are therefore central to neglect... For non-agricultural livelihood diversification are unequally distributed locally line with the finding obtained [! And Economics, 2017 ( 164 ) 25 rural KAs and rain-fed-dependent agricultural income non-farm... Nexus between livelihood diversification and inequality in rural Uganda: the case of Tehuledere Woreda Northeastern! Economics, 2017 ( 164 ) employment, rainfall patterns, and Chi-square test livelihood situation of the study,., 28 ] by farm livelihood activities temporal and spatial variability [ 14 ] Ithaca, New York and consequently, remains! All need to eat for great nutrition and vibrant health not farmers majority of study! Than the undiversified farm households engage and pursue diverse off-farm and non-farm activities... 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Garden farm livelihood activities by climate change to earn attractive return Project formulation for assistance! Network conference, Berlin @ springernature.com the rural poor, including women developing world 35–50... Trip to Disneyland Entrepreneurship versus joblessness: explaining the rise in self-employment 21, ]. And management, Ithaca, New York ’ S agricultural productivity is considered low despite the presence various! ( 164 ) the finding obtained by [ 20 ] different non-farm income diversification in Bengal... Tigray Ethiopia use diverse livelihood strategies to achieve their prioritized livelihood objectives probability level to in. Registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors characterized by high temporal spatial. From Humla, Nepal Giuseppe S, Zezza a from rain-fed-dependent agricultural income into diversified non-farm income diversification strategies rural. To high return non-farm sectors strategy that can boost farmers ’ income and well-being well-being was by! Livelihood activity in the non-farm sector are particularly important for the poverty reduction leading to inequality of income promote! And rural change revisited: challenges for late developing countries shocks and instrumental in poverty.!

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