Reports of the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Held at the Library of Congress. Precision has always been recognized as an important attribute of weapon development. More then 90% (of total deaths)civilians outright mowed down or tortured to death. In June 1941, the U.S. Army Air Corps was redesignated the U.S. Army Air Forces (USAAF) and submitted a blueprint for the defeat of the Axis powers should the United States be drawn into the war. On the "opening night" of the Gulf War, Baghdad was struck by two kinds of precision attackers: ship-launched cruise missiles, and aircraft-launched laser-guided bombs. The sinking of the Eilat had profound impact; one surface warfare officer remarked that "it was reveille" to the surface Navy." The German planes then became targets for the well-trained Mustang and Thunderbolt pilots. In anticipation of the invasion of North Africa—Operation Torch—units originally assigned to the Eighth Air Force were instead sent to the Mediterranean. A complete set of plans ended up in that country. As the bombers formed up over the Channel, short-range British Supermarine Spitfire fighters climbed to escort the heavies to the Continent. Testing all its reforms in early February 1944, the Eighth Air Force mounted a third Schweinfurt raid and lost only 11 out of 231 bombers, while three other raids sent 600 bombers against Germany with minimal losses. Between October 8 and 14, 1943, the Eighth Air Force flew 1,342 heavy bomber sorties, losing a total of 152 bombers (11.3 percent), with another 6 percent receiving heavy damage. The reality was that in combat, bombing accuracy depended largely on the skill and experience of the bombardier. In particular, the Soviet Union pursued development of such weapons as a means of countering the tremendous maritime supremacy of the Western alliance during the Cold War. Turning back somewhere around Aachen, just inside the German border, the P-47s left the unescorted bombers to a catastrophic fate. The changes eventually made to Operation Pointblank in 1944 came from several sources. For example, on February 9, in one night of concentrated air attacks, forty F-111Fs destroyed over 100 armored vehicles. Two months later, an anti-shipping missile launched from a Heinkel He 177 sank a British troopship with the loss of 1,190 American soldiers. The Allied strategic campaign in 1942 was very limited and too modest to produce conclusive evidence on its effectiveness. Sixty were shot down, just over 20 percent of the total number. Who Started the Bombing of Civilians in WWII? Also 617 couldn’t de-calibrate them. Once above the target area, these “self-defending” American bombers would utilize the world’s most sophisticated bombsight—the Norden—which allowed for such factors as speed, course, wind direction and distance to target. On September 9, 1943, a German Fritz-X radio-guided glide bomb dropped from a Dornier Do 217 bomber sank the modern Italian battleship Roma as it steamed towards Gibraltar. By 1943, when American bombers began to invade the airspace of the Reich proper, the Luftwaffe fighter command began to make a major effort against them. On October 14, “Black Thursday,” a force of 291 B-17s flew into Germany and lost 60 aircraft. American air leaders, recognizing the inability of unescorted heavy bombers to get through and bomb German industry without excessive losses, questioned the very foundation of American air strategy. The British initiated their own strategic bombing campaign against Germany in late 1939. Perhaps most significantly, Doolittle instituted a phased escort system that provided fighter coverage in relays. The American doctrine of strategic daylight precision bombing failed because it rested on three premises that would be tested in World War II. Cloud cover and industrial haze frequently obscured targets so bomb release was made by dead reckoning from the last navigational "fix"—the bombers dropping their loads according to the ETA for the target. But despite such corrective measures, the problems posed by newer generations of weapons continue to confront naval planners in the present day. These attacks were not classic close air support, or battlefield air interdiction, but, instead, given the level of accomplishment over time, went far beyond the levels of effectiveness traditionally implied by such terms. Dive bombing accuracy is two to three times too high. Of those, five planes were abandoned or crashed on landing, while 17 others landed so damaged that they had to be written off. What can be identified can be targeted so precisely that unnecessary casualties are not inflicted upon an opponent. Pathfinder Bombing Accuracy. The British development of specialist 'Earthquake' bombs (which needed to be dropped very accurately) led to the development of supporting aiming techniques such as SABS and the Pathfinder Force. The Royal Air Force responded by carrying out night-raids on Germany. As many as 1,000 complete or nearly complete German aircraft had been destroyed. Since then, the development and adoption of guided munitions has greatly increased the accuracy of aerial bombing. Using this system, RAF Spitfires were responsible for areas over the English Channel and the North Sea to a distance of about 100 miles. It was seemingly all down to practise and good concentration by the bomb aimers. NATO forces achieved their military and political objectives. Further, in the precision engagement era, what has changed most dramatically has been the time scale and level of effort required to achieve decisive effects over an opponent. Even more significantly, an aircraft dropping a laser-guided bomb could drop it from outside the majority of an enemy's air defenses, thus further reducing the likelihood of incurring losses to enemy defenses. Although it was an immature weapons system during the Great War, the airplane’s enormous potential fueled the imaginations of interwar air theorists, foremost among them Italy’s Giulio Douhet. By war's end, Germany and the United States had employed various proto-smart weapons in combat, including radio, radar, and television-guided bombs and missiles, against targets ranging from industrial sites to bridges and enemy shipping. 115 against the city of Schweinfurt, the center of the German ball bearing industry. Average CEP bombing accuracy at the beginning of the Vietnam War was 420 feet. Strategic bombing during World War II was the sustained aerial attack on railways, harbours, cities, workers' and civilian housing, and industrial districts in enemy territory during World War II. The period ended when the … The raids cost the Eighth Air Force 60 out of 315 bombers and usually the 10 crewmen in each bomber. In the first four months of 1944 it had lost 1,684 fighter pilots. However, on November 17, 1990, the Colorado Aviation Historical Society gave Brown a special achievement award, and Paul Harvey even told her tale on his show, The Rest of the Story , on November 19, 1990. Even before the outbreak of war in 1939, a group of American scientists–many of them refugees from fascist regimes in Europe–became concerned with nuclear weapons research being conducted in Nazi Germany. Initially, production of the Norden bombsight lagged, forcing the rapidly expanding Army Air Forces to use the less accurate Sperry S-1 bombsight. John Jay, first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court who negotiated treaties for the United States. As the commander in chief of the American air service, General Arnold surrounded himself with “bomber men,” disciples of daylight strategic precision bombing. American bomber losses fell below 10 percent of each raiding force, while German pilot losses mounted. In December 1943, the Eighth Air Force mounted its first 600-plane raid. Several different techniques were tried, including Knickebein, X-Gerät and Y-Gerät (Wotan). Operation Pointblank proved that American air power’s first mission should always be the establishment of air superiority through the destruction of the enemy’s air force. The Iraqi army was, in effect, mortally wounded in this time. Meanwhile, the remnants of the Luftwaffe battled the RAF and USAAF as the round-the-clock pounding of German cities and industry continued. Explosive loads could also be more accurately tailored for the target, since the planner could assume most bombs would strike in the place and manner expected. But contrary to popular believe, it wasn't all that straightforward. Major General James H. “Jimmy” Doolittle replaced Eaker as the Eighth Air Force commander on January 6, 1944. My father was B-17 bomber air crew (waist gunner) during World War II with the 8th Air Force over the skies of Europe. The remaining precision munitions consisted of specialized air-to-surface missiles such as the Maverick and the Hellfire, as well as cruise missiles, anti-radar missiles, and assorted small numbers of special weapons. Powered by four turbocharged engines, the B-17s and B-24s were, at the time of their test flights in the mid-1930s, faster than most of the world’s operational interceptors. A primary goal of Operation Pointblank was fulfilled when, on June 6, 1944, the Luftwaffe failed to menace Operation Overlord, the Normandy invasion, and the Allies enjoyed air superiority over the battlefield for the rest of the war. Their replacements would be unskilled youths thrust into combat against experienced American pilots. The USAAF mounted some 3,800 daylight sorties over the Reich during the so-called “Big Week” of February 22-25, while more than 2,300 night sorties were flown by RAF Bomber Command. Once the bombers had punched through this fighter belt, he reasoned, there would be clear airspace the rest of the way to and from the targets. Operations from medium altitudes (15,000 ft and higher) at longer slant ranges severely complicated bombing accuracy, particularly against targets that required a direct hit to be destroyed, such as hangars, bunkers, tanks, and artillery. Instead of punching their way through a single linear defense, Allied bombers had to contend with a sophisticated defense-in-depth, which provided constant attacks against bombers going to and from their targets. enter play. Air attacks by F-15E's and Marine A-6 Intruders in the easternmost section of the theater averaged over thirty artillery pieces or armored vehicles destroyed per night. The U.S. daytime bombing raids were more effective in reducing German defences by engaging the German Luftwaffe than destruction of the means of aircraft production. The Blitz (September 7, 1940–May 11, 1941), bombing campaign undertaken by Nazi Germany against Britain during World War II. This directive, in effect, ordered the Eighth Air Force to destroy the German aviation industry and secure air superiority over the continent, but how air superiority was to be achieved was debatable. Over the next year, the Eighth Air Force leadership struggled to build a bomber force capable of inflicting serious damage on the Germans. Moreover, Eaker believed erroneously that the Germans had created a relatively narrow coastal fighter belt from Hamburg to Brittany. But building such an armada would take time; planes needed to be assembled, air and ground crews trained, and an air force, the Eighth, had to be positioned in England. On the eve of the Gulf War, critics of proposed military action posited scenarios where tens of thousands of Iraqis would be killed by largely indiscriminate air attacks that would "carpet bomb" population centers, particularly Baghdad. In an era when things like lasers or computer-assisted anything were still dreams, dropping bombs from aircraft was somewhat … The average number of attack sorties per DMPI destroyed was 1.5. What was average creep back? Today, planners are far less concerned about the number of sorties required to destroy a target; rather, they emphasize the number of targets destroyed per sortie as the metric that must be considered. On the plane profile screen, sometimes I see a value for bombing accuracy with both fighters and bombers. Only one plane actually hit the target area, and only with one of its bombs. Precision attacks against the Iraqi air force destroyed some of it on the ground, and precipitated an attempted exodus of remaining aircraft to safety in Iran. But insufficient range prevented the Thunderbolts from keeping the bombers company all the way to the target. The U.S. Strategic Air Forces, coordinating Eighth and Fifteenth air forces’ raids, resulted in a new peak in the American bombing effort. The newly formed Eighth Air Force, under the command of one of Arnold’s premier bomber men, Maj. Gen. Ira C. Eaker, joined the RAF Bomber Command in England in the summer of 1942. The results were again disastrous. Am interested to see if anyone can elaborate on the subject. Moreover, American aircraft production was finally meeting USAAF needs, and the USAAF training establishment was producing increasing numbers of bomber crews and fighter pilots. Losses in the second week of “Black October” climbed until the second major strike against the ball bearing factories at Schweinfurt capped the slaughter. The changes produced a revision of Operation Pointblank and a doctrine that emphasized destroying the Luftwaffe in a war of attrition in order to gain air superiority for the coming D-Day invasion in the summer of 1944. . This activity by Ian Luff is one of those thought-provoking activities – growing up in the 50s and 60s I knew about Lancaster bombers and the Dambusters but what thoughts I had were about the courage needed to take part in raids. The results of bombing raids were highly successful which gave rise to new ingenuities within aircraft. Not quite half of this percentage—4.3 percent—consisted of laser-guided bombs, credited with causing approximately 75 percent of the serious damage inflicted upon Iraqi strategic and operational targets. The rest were dead, wounded, missing, psychological cases or prisoners of war. It had been won by a combination of fighters actively hunting down and killing Germany’s air force and Allied bombers damaging the industrial and logistical infrastructure that supported the German military machine’s ability to make war. Approximately 2,800 Kamikaze attackers sunk 34 Navy ships, damaged 368 others, killed 4,900 sailors, and wounded over 4,800. According to Arnold and his top commanders, the primary purpose of air power in Europe during the coming conflicts would be strategic bombing. It was thought that bringing the horrors of war directly to the factories, power plants and railroads in the cities would cause the citizens of an enemy nation to compel their government to sue for peace. Put into effect in June 1943, Operation Pointblank, as the combined bomber offensive was eventually called, appeared critical to any successful invasion and ground campaign, since the limited Allied ground forces would require clear air superiority and would benefit from a weakened Wehrmacht. As a result of NATO's first sustained air strike operations, all military and political objectives were attained: safe areas were no longer under attack or threatened, heavy weapons had been removed from designated areas, and Sarajevo's airport could once again open, as could road access to the city. Although Big Week cost the Eighth 300 planes (mostly bombers) lost or written off, nearly 10,000 tons of bombs were dropped on the German aircraft industry and ball bearing plants, a greater tonnage than the Eighth had dropped on all targets in 1943. This was a period of apprenticeship, as bomber commanders learned tactics, trained crews and built up a ground organization. After the prohibitive losses sustained in October 1943, the Eighth Air Force suspended deep bomber strikes into German territory. During the practice missions there was reportedly very little difference in bombing accuracy. Doing this, even with the vaunted Norden bomb sight, mean accuracy measured in hundreds of feet, and more typically, hundreds of yards or meters. At sea, Royal Navy and U.S. Navy helicopters destroyed numerous Iraqi small boats and military craft; fourteen of fifteen British Aerospace Sea Skua anti-shipping missiles launched from Westland Lynx helicopters hit their targets. Combined statistics of American[clarification needed] and NATO experience indicate that the average number of precision weapons per designated mean point of impact (DMPI) destroyed was 2.8. Sorties by Spanish, French, and British strike aircraft dropped 86 laser-guided bombs, and French, Italian, Dutch, and United Kingdom attackers dropped 306 "dumb" bombs. As one analytical study[who?] Of the 35 aircrews that arrived in England with the 100th Bomb Group at the end of May 1943, only 14 percent of the men made it through the 25 missions required for rotation. When Eaker joined the Eighth Air Force, he had only a handful of B-17s in the European theater. American airmen dropped only 12 "dumb" bombs. German industrial output was not stopped by Allied strategic bombing. On August 17, 1943, the Eighth Air Force launched its deepest raid against the ball bearing factories at Schweinfurt and aircraft production factories at Regensburg. Gen. William “Billy” Mitchell gained champions within the U.S. Army Air Corps, and strategic bombing doctrine began to be reflected in its field manuals. Such high attrition rates meant the average bomber crew could expect to survive only 14 or 15 unescorted missions. But the systems fatally depended on accurate radio reception, and the British invented the first electronic warfare techniques to successfully counter this weapon in the 'Battle of the Beams', The RAF later developed their own beam guidance techniques, such as GEE and Oboe. After more raids against Luftwaffe airfields, the Eighth Air Force made another massive effort the next month. To this day, a legend surrounds the accuracy of the Norden bombsight and the device’s role in the Allied victory in World War II. WWII: Daylight Precision Bombing of Nazi Germany. Specialist units such as 617 squadron were able to use these and other techniques to achieve remarkable precision, such as the bombing of the Michelin factory at Clermont-Ferrand in France, where they were required to destroy the workshops but leave the canteen next to them standing.[3]. Only 197 returned to England. The upcoming anniversary of the bombing of Dresden (February 13 to 15, 1945) has highlighted the deliberately-obscured fact that the British, and not the Germans, started the mass bombing of civilians in World War II, and that this remains one of the great unpunished war crimes of the Twentieth Century. RAF ground crews refuel and reload bombs onto an Avro Lancaster at Mepal, Cambridgeshire, for a night raid on Krefeld, Germany. Highly classified, it gave American forces bombing accuracy unmatched by any other nation at the time. Before the war on practice ranges, some USAAF crews were able to produce very accurate results, but over Europe with weather and German fighters and anti-aircraft guns and the limited training for new crews this level of accuracy was impossible to reproduce. He saw promise in a concept suggested by Word, who drew on earlier research by the Army for laser guidance of missiles. Precision weaponry accounted for 28 percent of NATO munitions dropped by non-US attackers. The precision weapon era dates to May 12, 1943, when a Royal Air Force Liberator patrol bomber dropped a Mk. On that Thursday, the United States Eighth Air Force mounted Mission No. Lost and damaged planes constituted more than half the sorties flown during the month. Throughout the summer and fall, Eighth Air Force bomber crews were experiencing a monthly attrition rate of 30 percent, while Luftwaffe pilots died at a rate less than half that of the Americans. Petroleum targets and transportation systems dropped down the priority list, while submarine targets remained close to the top. As soon as they appeared, then, Kamikazes revealed their power to force significant changes in Allied naval planning and operations, despite relatively small numbers. On opening night of the war, attacks by strike aircraft and cruise missiles against air defense and command and control facilities opened up Iraq for subsequent conventional attackers. Operations from medium altitudes (15,000 ft and higher) at longer slant ranges severely complicated bombing accuracy, particularly against targets that required a direct hit to be destroyed, such as hangars, bunkers, tanks, and artillery. Initially, the Royal Air Force’s (RAF’s) Bomber Command attempted daylight strikes against the Reich, but those strikes proved disastrous, and the British soon turned to night attacks against urban centers. Night-time raids dramatically reduced accuracy and it became impossible for pilots to concentrate on bombing military targets. Henry Jackson Jr, boxer using the name Henry Armstrong, the only fighter to hold 3 professional boxing titles simultaneously. Strategic bombing is a military strategy which is distinct from both close air support of ground forces and tactical air power. Assuming that population and industrial centers would be vulnerable to fleets of heavy bombers, Douhet advocated attacking an enemy nation’s urban areas and factories with explosives, incendiaries and poisonous gas—with no distinction being made between combatant and noncombatant. The single most important factor is how well the decision-maker, both military and political, appreciates what precision weapons can and cannot accomplish, what mechanism or process has been established to assess the appropriateness of their use, and the rules of engagement that govern their use. In addition, the Eighth Air Force changed target priorities because the Allied Combined Chiefs of Staff demanded that it bomb U-boat pens and construction yards. Winning WWII required a coordinated campaign that struck Germany, Italy and Japan on all fronts. More importantly, the path to a peace agreement had been secured. Posts: 55 Joined: 12/28/2013 Status: offline: I have A24 Banshees, B-26's and Beaufighters attempting to go after Japanese ships in Salamaua. Two premises of daylight strategic bombing—that bombers would be able to get through enemy defenses and back without escorts, and that destroying the enemy’s industrial base would cripple its war effort—appeared to be greatly mistaken. British bomber raids were conducted at night to minimize aircraft losses, but the accuracy of the nocturnal strikes left much to be desired. These provided impressive accuracy—British post-raid analysis showed that the vast majority of the bombs dropped could be placed within 100 yards (91 m) of the midline of the beam, spread along it a few hundred yards around the target point, even in pitch-dark conditions at a range of several hundred miles. The Germans had a spy in the Norden factory. The steep-dive attack was one of the most accurate ways of bombing. On the other hand, since it took 1-2 bombs to sink an AK in reality, the increased accuracy may not have as serious an effect as might be expected. The Germans built a copy of the Norden sight from these plans and tried it out. When the war began on 1 September 1939, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the neutral United States, issued an appeal to the major belligerents to confine their air raids to military targets. Particularly deadly were F-111F night "tank plinking" strikes using 500 lb (230 kg) GBU-12 laser-guided bombs. Yet even in its limited early operations in 1942, the Eighth Air Force lost up to seven percent of its bombers on some unescorted raids, a rate of loss that previously had led the RAF to abandon daylight operations. S186 I unfortunately can't remember where I read it,but many many years ago I read that the RAF had done research into bombing accuracy during WW2 and concluded that only 1 bomb in 16 had fallen within 1 mile of its target. The offensive came to be called the Blitz after the German word ‘blitzkrieg,’ meaning ‘lightning war.’ During WWII with engine power as a major limitation, ... As the effectiveness of a bomber was dependent on the weight and accuracy of its bomb load, ever larger bombers were developed starting in World War I, while considerable money was spent developing suitable bombsights. Torpedo accuracy is two to three times too high. Not only would bombers continue to strike key aircraft industries, but increasing numbers of American fighter escorts would aggressively attack the Luftwaffe as the Germans rose to attack heavy bomber formations. Even though the technology of war is constantly being improved, research and development isn’t always as quick as the military needs. Bombing was coordinated through a lead aircraft but although still nominally precision bombing (as opposed to the area bombing carried out by RAF Bomber Command) the result of bombing from high level was still spread over an area. The Eighth Air Force gunners claimed a 6-to-1 kill ratio against enemy fighters over France and the Low Countries, a vastly exaggerated figure. The modern precision weapon era may be said to have begun in May 1972, when laser-guided-bomb-armed F-4 Phantoms perfunctorily took down the Paul Doumer and Thanh Hóa bridges in North Vietnam, as part of a larger campaign that shattered North Vietnam's invasion of South Vietnam in the spring of that year. I keep sending them in and they keep getting shot down and none of them can hit anything? Chief among this new generation of bomber advocates in the late 1930s was the leader of the Army Air Corps, General Henry “Hap” Arnold. How has American air doctrine changed as a result? That was certainly true during World War II. The American daylight bombing campaign against Germany had reached a crisis point. The punishing, three-day Allied bombing attack on Dresden from February 13 to 15 in the final months of World War II became among the most controversial Allied actions of … After Black Week, Eaker called off further penetrations and pondered his dilemma. Unlike 'dumb' bombs, LGB's released from medium to high altitude were highly accurate. During WWI and WWII 100 million people died because of it. Once in the air, they were assailed by Allied fighter escorts. With every passing month, more Flying Fortresses and Liberators entered the pipeline, and General Eaker continued to believe his rapidly increasing flock of “self-protecting” bombers would be able to successfully reach, bomb and return from targets over the Reich itself. Grover Washington Jr, singer, songwriter, musician, producer. Instead, by simultaneously striking at aircraft factories and bombing industrial and military targets deep inside Germany, the combined bomber offensive forced the Luftwaffe to send its fighters to meet the ever-increasing flow of bombers over the Reich. Lieutenant Frederick Entwhistle, the Navy’s chief of bombsight development, called it revolutionary, and its design was good enough that it would be used throughout World War II and up to the Vietnam War. Never did … For the U.S. Army Air Forces, daylight bombing was normal based upon box formations for defence from fighters. Brian Todd Carey is an assistant professor at the American Military University of Virginia. HistoryNet.com contains daily features, photo galleries and over 5,000 articles originally published in our various magazines. American losses from both England and North Africa mounted inexorably from August to October, culminating in the Eighth Air Force’s so-called “Black Week.” The week as a whole cost the Eighth Air Force a quarter of its airmen in England. Of the survivors, another 138 bombers suffered damage or casualties. The activation of the Fifteenth forced the Germans to defend against two major bomber threats during daylight. The Luftwaffe addressed this issue first by using a series of radio beams to direct aircraft and indicate when to drop bombs. Undaunted, Eaker reorganized his bomber force for another maximum effort into Germany in October 1943. In October 1943, the U.S. Eighth Air Force’s losses became critical, forcing a reappraisal of the American daylight bombing Strategy. Naval search missions … Allied heavy bombers over the Reich now served as both bait and hunter, compelling the Luftwaffe to climb above 20,000 feet to meet the oncoming bombers and their deadly escorts in order to defend important industrial and population centers. The most obvious was that the guided bombs could correct for ballistic and release errors in flight. Convinced of the effectiveness of strategic bombing, the Army Air Forces asked for and received permission to build a huge bomber force on truly a Douhetian scale. The airplane, initially used during World War I in a reconnaissance role to locate enemy troop and artillery movements and concentrations, evolved throughout the conflict to perform all of the roles identified with modern air power—including strategic bombing. Bomber Command was forced to carpet-bomb urban areas, a strategy that razed parts of German cities but did not effectively target Hitler’s industrial complex. John Osbourne, playwright and film producer (Look Back in Anger). Learn how and when to remove this template message, United States bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade, http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/EARS/Hallionpapers/precisionweaponspower.htm, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Precision_bombing&oldid=953232191, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from public domain works of the United States Government, Articles needing additional references from January 2009, All articles needing additional references, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from November 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2015, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2015, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the United States Air Force, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 April 2020, at 10:09. 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Other strategic cities douhet ’ s theories and those of Air power advocate Brig crews and built a. Had succeeded, but the Germans had created a coastal fighter belt into Germany lost. On attacks on the plane profile screen, sometimes i see a for! Redesigned its bomber formations for more accurate bombing and mutual self-protection off further penetrations and pondered his dilemma the tour. Years of Allied strategic bombing could eliminate an enemy ’ s more to a peace agreement had destroyed! Not limited to fixed-wing attackers B-17 and B-24 groups in Europe during 1920s. Down, just inside the German border, the first mass-produced air-to-surface guided missile is a military strategy is.

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